The official language, Turkish, is the first language spoken by 90% of the 78.74m population. Minority languages; Kurdish is spoken by 6% of the population. Arabic is spoken by 1.2% of the Turkish population; most of those speakers are bilingual Arabic and Turkish speakers. Other minority languages include Circassian, spoken by more than 0.09% throughout the country, Greek, Armenian and ladino, language spoken by Jews.
The unit of Turkish money is the Turkish Lira (Türk Lirası, TL). On 1 March 2012 the symbol ( ) was introduced by the Turkish Central Bank to denote the Turkish Lira.
Banknotes are in denominations of TL 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 liras.
The lira is divided into 100 Kuruş, with coins in denominations of Kr 1 (rare), 5, 10, 25 and 50 (Kuruş).